A Brief History
From Mendel to the Human Genome Project

Gregor Mendel, the father of modern genetics, presents his research on experiments in plant hybridization 1865
Friedrich Miescher identifies "nuclein," DNA with associated proteins, from cell nuclei
Rosalind Franklin creates Photograph 51, showing a distinctive pattern that indicates the helical shape of DNA 1952
James Watson and Francis Crick discover the double helix structure of DNA
Marshall Nirenberg cracks the genetic code for protein synthesis 1961
Frederick Sanger develops rapid DNA sequencing technique
First genetic disease mapped, Huntington’s Disease 1983
Invention of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology for amplifying DNA
Cystic Fibrosis gene mutation identified 1989
First evidence provided for the existence of the BRCA1 gene
The Human Genome Project begins 1990
Haemophilus influenzae becomes first bacterium genome sequenced
“Bermuda Principles” drafted for Human Genome Project free data access 1996
Celera Genomics Corporation founded for sequencing the human genome
Chromosome 22 first human chromosome to be decoded 1999
Genome sequence of model organism fruit fly reported
First draft of the human genome released 2001
Mouse becomes first mammalian research organism with decoded genome
Human Genome Project completion announced 2003
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Genómica: conocimientos

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